Fructose

At the beginning, it is essential to underline that we strongly discourage people from excessive eating or drinking. It is not fructose, glucose-fructose syrup neither saccharose that causes obesity, but lack of moderation! Instead we recommend balanced diet and healthy lifestyle, based on knowledge, informed decisions and common sense, including regular exercises.

Actually, why fructose? Because it releases energy gradually and it is distinguished by low glycaemic index. In addition, it is teeth friendly, because the bacteria which usually processes glucose to acids, that damage teeth enamel, do not produce enzymes, which could process fructose. It is sweeter than sugar, which effects in use of smaller amounts and consequently lowers energy value of particular product. Fructose is a natural sugar occurring in fruits, honey and nectars that are commonly perceived as healthy. It is used in diabetes’ prophylaxis for 100 years due to low glycaemic index. Information for men and couples trying to have a baby: presence of fructose is essential ingredient of semen of homo sapiens – meaning us, people, where it serves as energy material for spermatozoa.

For comparison: glycaemic indexes of couple of sweetening agents:

  • glucose, called dextrose, meaning grape sugar – 100
  • white or brown sugar, meaning saccharose – 70
  • fructose, meaning fruit sugar – 20
  • xylitol – 8
  • stevia – 3.

And what is glycaemic index? IG is defined as a mean, percentage increase of glucose in blood after eating portion of product containing 50 g of digestible carbohydrates. Increase of blood sugar level after eating 50g of digestible carbohydrates. Increase of blood sugar level after eating 50g of glucose has been acknowledged as a base of scale (100%). Thus, the higher IG, the faster increase of blood sugar level after eating the product and its savage due to intense release of insulin to blood stream.

However, fructose has been assessed as harmful due to raising epidemic of obesity in developed countries.

And what is the truth? You may check yourself. Below are listed few “fresh” publications based on scientific research and a comment of medical professor. Conclusion for us is simple: the cause of obesity is addition of glucose-fructose syrup to all products such as juices, drinks, bread, cold cuts… and consequently, excessive consumption of simple sugars.

  1. 1. Alarming title of the article in American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (2016 Apr 7. pii: S0002-9378(16)00530-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.03.038)

Saad AF. et al.: High-fructose diet in pregnancy leads to fetal programming of hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity in adult offspring

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27060421

Pregnant mice were administered 10% solution of fructose and it was their only drink during whole pregnancy.

It is like giving a pregnant woman only a tea/water with 4-5 teaspoons of fructose to drink in each serving. I am not sure if that is the best idea – my friends definitely preferred juice from pickles. On the other hand – what is more persuasive than own experiences and sensations? Try to add 5 teaspoons of fructose to glass of tea and down it. Have you succeeded?

  1. An article in Pancreatology. (2016 Mar 10. pii: S1424-3903(16)00052-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2016.03.001.)

Topsakal S. et al.: Alpha lipoic acid attenuates high-fructose-induced pancreatic toxicity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27025195

Female rats were administered 30% HFCS solution for 10 weeks, which was made of 24% of fructose and 28% of dextrose.

 In fact, this means that in 200 ml glass was 14,4g of fructose and 16,8 g of dextrose, meaning glucose (3 heaping teaspoons). Taking into consideration the average length of rat’s life, a human would have to drink solely such ‘paste’ for couple – appx. 13 years (according to conversion rate available on “Oh, rats” http://www.taletn.com/rats/age/ webpage). As mentioned above, please try to drink even 1 glass of such solution…

 One of the groups of rats was administered alpha lipoic aid (ALA).

And the conclusion from the experiment: the research shows that HFCS induces pancreas damage, however ALA had mitigating influence.

  1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (2016 Apr 6;64(13):2682-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00290. Epub 2016 Mar 28.)

Yuan L. et al.: Isoorientin Prevents Hyperlipidemia and Liver Injury by Regulating Lipid Metabolism, Antioxidant Capability, and Inflammatory Cytokine Release in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961674

In this research mice received 20% solution of fructose (8-9 full teaspoons per glass) and next the damages done by excessive consumption of fructose was being treated by flavonoid originating from traditional Chinese medicine. The conclusion was the treatment was helping.

For me, from both of the research arises a conclusion that instead of encouraging people to not eat in excess, the drugs for mitigating of gluttony are being searched… In this way, people can earn twice. Clever, isn’t it?I do not want to criticize the research methods or ridicule the quoted scientific publications. On contrary, they are scientific proof that enough is enough.Indeed, there are scientific proofs of harmfulness of excessive consumption of sugars not only for animals, but also for people, causing obesity and other related consequences.
  1. British Medical Journal (2012 Jan 15;346:e7492. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7492.)

Te Morenga L i wsp.: Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321486

In this article, the authors by summarizing proofs for connection between consumption of sugars and weight of adults as well as children, concluded that high consumption of sugars in people who eat simple sugars or drink sweetened drinks ad libitum (as they want) meaning without limiting themselves, determines increase of body weight, meaning obesity.

The research indicates that moderate (normal) consumption of sugars, including fructose, does not increase risk of obesity or illness.
  1. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015 Feb;17(2):87-94. doi: 10.1111/jch.12457. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Angelopoulos TJ et al.: Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25496265

  1. 2016 Mar 23;8(4). pii: E179. doi: 10.3390/nu8040179.

Angelopoulos TJ et al.: Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023594

These two articles have their conclusions in the titles. The subjects were administered low-fat milk in their diet, which was sweetened with fructose, glucose, glucose-fructose syrup or saccharose (=white sugar) for 10 weeks, in this way ensuring administration of 9% of daily energy intake from fructose and glucose, as well as 18% from saccharose and glucose-fructose syrup. There were not found negative effects of the administered quantities of sugars.

Similarly, lack of negative effects of normal use of sugar and glucose-fructose syrup were found in following publications:
  1. 2014 Mar 17;6(3):1128-44. doi: 10.3390/nu6031128.

Lowndes et al.: The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642950

The authors concluded that the fructose – administered in eucaloric diet (meaning without excessive calories) including glucose – consumed as usually – does not cause increase of body weight or appearance of atherosclerotic lipid profile even when it is consumed in amounts 2-4 timed higher compared to amount recommended by AHA (American Heart Association). There was not found a difference between corn syrup with high fructose contents and sugar (saccharose).

2014 Aug 8;6(8):3153-68. doi: 10.3390/nu6083153.

Lowndes J et al.: The effects of fructose-containing sugars on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors when consumed at up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25111121

In this publication authors, have shown that eating fructose, by people with overweight or obesity, as a component of normal diet does not increase blood sugar level even at level of 90th percentile of fructose, which is equivalent of 5-time excess or the recommended level by AHA (American Heart Association) and three times higher level recommended by WHO (World Health Organization); with so high level of consumption the changes of lipid profile turned out to be ambiguous and rather moderate

And also, CANCER

  1. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Dec;21(12):2129-36. doi: 10.1007/s10552-010-9632-4. Epub 2010 Aug 15.

Simon MS et al.: Glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women in the women’s health initiative observational study and clinical trial.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20711806

161 809 women in age of 50-79 years old were observed for approximately 8 years and 332 (0,2% of the examined group) of the subjects were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The researchers shown that glycaemic load, glycaemic index, carbohydrates, fructose and saccharose are not associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. .

The research made on such big population conducted for such a long time should be trusted.

 
It turned out that one more important point associated with fructose shall be talked trough, precisely the influence of consuming it on lipid metabolism.

10. Physiological Reviews. 2010 Jan; 90(1): 23-46. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00019.2009.

Tappy L and Lê KA.: Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20086073

Over 90% of the consumed fructose is quickly captured by liver  and metabolized there. Only 1-5% of the fructose is being transformed into fatty acids, and they are being transformed into triglycerides in liver’s cells, which  move into bloodstream in VLDL fraction (very low density lipoprotein). Many research shows, that appx 50% of the fructose transforms into glucose, of which majority is being integrated into chains of glycogen (“animal starch”), which ¼ stays in the liver as a building material and the rest is being stored in muscles as “fuel”.

11. Current Sports Medicine Reports 2010 Jul-Aug;9(4):253-8. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181e7def4.

Johnson RJ, Murray R. Fructose, exercise, and health.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622544

In conclusion, if we do not eat excessive amounts of the fructose and we support burning calories by keeping active lifestyle, we should not be worried.

 

And in addition for diabetes:

12. Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 558) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) no 1924/2006.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2223/epdf

The Eurpoean Food Safety Authority clearly suggests that the fructose and  – opposed to glucose and regular sugar –releases  energy slowly and does not causes sudden changes of the blood sugar level compared to the sugar, thanks to what the people with illness feel better.

Let’s be evaluative with regards to overheard stories, and even with regards to internet news from various experts. Let’s don’t get crazy, let’s investigate, educate* and eat everything… with temperance** 🙂

*From reliable sources

**Of course people with disease, e.g. diabetes, must pay more attention to what and what quantity they eat.